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Course 6: Chemistry of Plants Part 1

Course Information

Herbal Courses

UNIT GUIDE

Unit Title and Code : Chemistry of Plants Part 1

Unit Duration : 20 hours in class study, assignments and home study.

Core or Elective Unit: Core Unit

Pre-requisites : - Chemistry, HM01, HM02, HM04, HM05

Mode of Delivery External studies delivered with a combination of texts, workbooks, written assignments and an online final written assessment

Unit Objectives:  To provide the participants with knowledge of the pharmacological and phyto-chemical basis of medicinal plants. This unit explores the Major phyto-chemicals and selected herbs which are presented as representative examples of plants with these constituents. Each of the Archetypal plant constituents are discussed highlighting the actions of the constituents, dosages, possible adverse reactions and drug interactions, as well as their potential. The therapeutic actions of isolated plant constituents are compared with whole plant medicines.

Course Content:

  • To identify the constituents found in phytotherapies
  • To understand these constituents contribute to the pharmacology of medicinal herbs
  • To discuss the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of these archetypal plant constituents
  • To highlight the toxicity potential and contra-indications of the these phytochemicals
  • To highlight the pharmacological activity found from these herbal constituents including their absorption, their dosage and  duration of treatment
  • To highlight any research into these medicinal phytochemicals

Learning Outcomes

LEARNING OUTCOMES

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA


Learning Outcome 1

Introduction into the archetypal plant constituents

  • Discuss the phtyochemical basis of herbal medicines and its importance to herbalists.
  • Describe the pharmacokinetics of medicinal plants and the way that they function within the body.

Learning Outcome 2

A basic introduction to the chemistry needed for pharmacognosy

  • Outline major chemical structures of medicinal plants
  •  Identify the major chemical constituents that are active in medicinal plants

Learning Outcome 3

Introduction to pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics  

  • Identify the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the plant constituents
  • Define the solubility of plant constituents
  • Discuss the grouping of herbs according to the structure of their constituents.
  • Identify the archetypal plant constituents and the secondary metabolite functions

Learning Outcome 4

The archetypal plant constituents – carbohydrates, fibre, mucilages and gums

  • Define the chemical constituent carbohydrates, mucilages and gums.
  • Highlight its actions, indications, contra-indications, mode of action, absorption, dosage and duration of treatments.
  • Give an understanding of carbohydrates and how they function in the human body.
  • Discuss the physiological activities, classification and cautions for each constituent.
  • Outline the principles of toxicity relevant to medical herbalists.
  • Outline the principles of pharmacokinetics as relevant to medicinal herbalists.

Learning Outcome 5

The archetypal plant constituents – Phenols

  • Define the chemical constituent phenols.
  • Highlight its actions, indications, contra-indications, mode of action, absorption, dosage and duration of treatments.
  • Give an understanding of phenols and how they function in the human body.
  • Discuss the physiological activities, classification and cautions for each constituent.
  • Outline the principles of toxicity relevant to medical herbalists.
  • Outline the principles of pharmacokinetics as relevant to medicinal herbalists.

Learning Outcome 6

The archetypal plant constituents – Glycosides

  • Define the chemical constituent Glycosides, including cardio-active glycosides, glucosinolates, iridoid glycosides and cyanogenic glycosides.
  • Highlight its actions, indications, contra-indications, mode of action, absorption, dosage and duration of treatments.
  • Give an understanding of glycosides and how they function in the human body.
  • Discuss the physiological activities, classification and cautions for each constituent.
  • Outline the principles of toxicity relevant to medical herbalists.
  • Outline the principles of pharmacokinetics as relevant to medicinal herbalists.

Learning Outcome 7

The archetypal plant constituents – Flavonoids

  • Define the chemical constituent flavonoids.
  • Highlight its actions, indications, contra-indications, mode of action, absorption, dosage and duration of treatments.
  • Give an understanding of flavonoids and how they function in the human body.
  • Discuss the physiological activities, classification and cautions for each constituent.
  • Outline the principles of toxicity relevant to medical herbalists.
  • Outline the principles of pharmacokinetics as relevant to medicinal herbalists.

Learning Outcome 8

The archetypal plant constituents – Flavonoids

  • Define the chemical constituent tannins.
  • Highlight its actions, indications, contra-indications, mode of action, absorption, dosage and duration of treatments.
  • Give an understanding of tannins and how they function in the human body.
  • Discuss the physiological activities, classification and cautions for each constituent.
  • Outline the principles of toxicity relevant to medical herbalists.
  • Outline the principles of pharmacokinetics as relevant to medicinal herbalists.

Lecture Plan:

Lecture

Lecture Content

Recommended Reading

1

Introduction to Pharamacognocy

A. Pengelly pp.

2

The archetypal plant constituents 

A. Pengelly pp.

3

Carbohydrates

A. Pengelly pp.

4

Phenols

A. Pengelly pp.

5

Glycosides

A. Pengelly pp.

6

Glycosides

A. Pengelly pp.

7

Flavonoids

A. Pengelly pp.

8

Tannins

A. Pengelly pp.

Pengelly, A – The Constituents of Medicinal Plants 2nd Ed, Allen & Unwin, NSW

 

Resources and Texts

Blumenthal, Busse, Goldberg, Gruenwald, Hall, Klein, Riggins & Rister (n.d.), The Complete German Commission E Monographs, Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines, Integrative Medicine Publishers, USA.

Bone, K (n.d.), A Clinical Guide to Blending Liquid Herbs, Churchill Livingstone, Missouri.

W. C. Evans – 2002 – Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy, 15th ed. W.B Saunders, Nottingham, UK 

Fisher C. & Painter G. – 1996 – Materia Medica of Western Herbs for the Southern Hemisphere

Hoffman D.– The Holistic Herbal– Element Press

Wohlmuth, H 1998, Pharmacognosy and Medicinal Plant Pharmacology, Lismore, NSW.

Relevant texts or journals, paper based material or DVD s.

Bone, K 2002, Potential Herb-Drug Interactions for Commonly Used Herbs (Chart), MediHerb, Warwick, Qld, Australia.

British Herbal Compendium, 1992, British Herbal Medical Association, Bournemouth, UK.

British Herbal Compendium, 1992, British Herbal Medical Association, Bournemouth, UK.

British Herbal Pharmacopoeia 1991, British Herbal Medicine Association, Bournemouth, UK.

Chevellier A. 2001 – Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants . Dorling Kindersley

Fisher C. & Painter G. – 1996 – Materia Medica of Western Herbs for the Southern Hemisphere

Hoffman D.– The Holistic Herbal– Element Press

Mowrey, D 1986, The Scientific Validation of Herbal Medicine, Keats Publishing, New Canaan, U.S.A.

Phyllis A. Balch – 2002- Prescription for Herbal Healing. Penguin Putman Inc

Phyllis A. Balch – 2006- Prescription for Nutritional Healing Penguin Group Publishing

Mills S. & Bone K. – 2000- Principles and practice of Phytotherapy – Churchill Livingstone

Shippard I. 2003 – How can I use herbs in my daily life? David Stewart

Wohlmuth, H 1998, Pharmacognosy and Medicinal Plant Pharmacology, Lismore, NSW.

Ellingwood, F 1983, American Materia Medica, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Eclectic Medical Publications, Porltand, Oregon, USA.

Felter, H W 1983, The Eclectic Materia Medica, Pharmacology and Therapeutic, Eclectic Medical Publications, Portland, Oregon, USA.

PhytoMedicine, Verlag, Stutgart, Germany.

A key to Galen’s Method of Physic” (Culpeper, 1990, 376

Weiss and Weiss, 1992, 35

Hoffman D. CD Rom The Herbalist. 2000

Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia 99. CD Rom

Mills, S & Bone, K 2000, Principles & Practice of Phytotherapy, Churchill Livingstone, London.

Mowrey, D 1986, The Scientific Validation of Herbal Medicine, Keats Publishing, New Canaan, U.S.A.

PhytoMedicine, Verlag, Stutgart, Germany.

Alternative Medicine," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 99. © 1993-1998 Microsoft Corporation.

 

 

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